In 1642 the invention of metal-plate engraving (or Mezzotint) by Ludwig von Siegen brought higher-quality s within the reach of the emerging middle class.[1] Engraving as the name implies requires an artisan to "hand write" the text in reverse onto a metal plate using a carving tool and the plate was then used to print the The resulting engraved s were protected from smudging by a sheet of tissue paper placed on top which is a tradition that remains to this day At the time the of s was more elaborate than today; typically the name of each guest was individually printed. The latest trend in s is to order them online Using the internet has made viewing organising and ordering s an easy task There are hundreds of websites that offer s and stationery and being online allows the customer to order from anywhere in.

If the groom's parents are also hosts of the then their names may be added as well If the parents are not the hosts of the then the host's name is substituted in the first line or especially if the bride and groom are themselves the hosts it may be written in the passive voice: "The honour of your presence is requested at the of " mal announcements sent after the ceremony omit the time and sometimes the place but usually retain the same general m Inmal s appropriate to less mal s are issued by word of mouth or by hand-written letter So long as they convey the necessary practical inmation about the time and place there is no set m.

Etiquette regarding the text on a mal varies according to country culture and language In Western countries a mal is typically written in mal third-person language saying that the hosts wish the recipient to attend the and giving its date time and place Even in countries like India where the concept of s was acquired through the British the language continues to follow western traditions.[3] As the bride's parents are traditionally the hosts of the the text commonly begins with the names of the bride's parents as they use them in mal social contexts e.g "Mr and Mrs John A Smith" or "Dr Mary Jones and Mr John Smith" The exact varies but a typical phrasing runs as follows: Prior to the invention of the moveable-type printing press by Johannes Gutenberg in 1447 s in England were typically announced by means of a Town crier: a man who would walk through the streets announcing in a loud voice the news of the day Traditionally anyone within earshot became part of the celebration In the Middle Ages illiteracy was widespread so the practice of sending written s emerged among the nobility Families of means would commission monks skilled in the art of Calligraphy to hand-craft their notices Such documents often carried the Coat of arms or personal crest of the individual and were sealed. The origins of commercially printed 'fine stationery' can be traced to the period immediately following World War II where a combination of democracy and rapid industrial growth gave the common man the ability to mimic the life-styles and materialism of society's elite About this time prominent society figures such as Amy Vanderbilt and Emily Post emerged to advise the ordinary man and woman on appropriate etiquette. In addition to the itself sellers promote a full panoply of optional printed materials The ensemble may include an RSVP response card a separate to a reception and inmation such as maps directions childcare options and hotel accommodations s should be sent out 6–8 weeks prior to a with slightly more time being given out of town or destination s Guests should be asked to have their reply given between 3 and 2 weeks bee the date Although many couples request RSVPs to be returned up to a month prior to. Tissues are often provided by manufacturers to place over the printed text Originally the purpose of the tissue was to reduce smudging or blotting especially on s poorly printed or hastily mailed bee the ink was fully dried but improved printing techniques mean they are now simply decorative.[5] Those who know that their original purpose has been made irrelevant by dramatic improvements in printing technology usually discard them.[6] Despite the emergence of the printing press the ordinary printing techniques of the time in which ink was simply stamped onto the paper using lead type produced too poor a result stylish s However the tradition of announcing s in the newspaper did become established at. Following the invention of Lithography by Alois Senefelder in 1798 it became possible to produce very sharp and distinctive inking without the need engraving.[2] This paved the way the emergence of a genuine mass-market in s s were still delivered by hand and on horseback however due to the unreliability of the nascent postal system A ‘double envelope’ was used to protect the from damage en route to its recipient This tradition remains today despite advances in postal reliability. More recently Letterpress printing has made a strong resurgence in popularity s It has a certain boutique and craft appeal due to the deep impression or bite that can be achieved It was not the original intent of letterpress to bite into the paper in this way but rather to kiss it creating a flat print The bite or deep impression is a recent aesthetic that adds the sensory experience of touch to letterpress printed s Many letterpress printers that specialize in s are small start ups or artisan printers rather than large printing companies Laser engraving has also been making headway in the market over the last few years Primarily used engraving wood veneer s it is also used to engrave acrylic or to mark certain types of. Mr and Mrs John A Smith request the honour of your presence at the of their daughter Jessica Marie to Mr Michael Francis Miller on the first of November at twelve noon Christchurch Hall Richmond Virginia Note the seemingly anglicised spelling 'honour'; this derives from a ruling laid down by Emily Post in the 1920s In the United States the line "request presence" is used when the ceremony is held in a house of worship; "pleasure of your company" is used when it is held elsewhere. Modern design follows fashion trends s are generally chosen to match the couple's personal preferences the level of mality of the event and any color scheme or planned theme example a casual beach may have light fresh colors and beach-related graphics A mal church may have more scripty typefaces and lots of ornamentation that matches the mal nature of the event The design of the is becoming less and less traditional and more reflective of the couple's personality Some web-based print-on-demand companies now allow couples to design or customize their. Like any other it is the privilege and duty of the host—historically younger brides in Western culture the mother of the bride on behalf of the bride's family—to issue s either by sending them herself or causing them to be sent either by enlisting the help of relatives friends or her social secretary to select the guest list and address envelopes or by hiring a service With computer technology some are able to print directly on envelopes from a guest list using a mail merge with word processing and spreadsheet software Traditionally s are mailed in double envelopes The inner envelope may be lined is not gummed and fits into the outer envelope The outer envelope is gummed sealing and addressing More recently the inner envelope is often left out in the interest of saving money paper and postage In some cases a pocketfold takes the place of an inner envelope In countries that issue them the envelope may be franked with love stamps The United States postal service issues a love stamp each year specifically denominated to cover the double weight of the and reply (a rate slightly less than the cost of two regular stamps). These printers also sell matching pieces intended the day of the such as programs menus table cards place cards as well as favors and party favors such as napkins coasters cocktail stirrers and matchboxes Response[edit] As with any the sole obligation of the person receiving it is to respond as promptly as reasonably possible to let the hosts know whether or not he will be able to attend.[7] Receiving a does not obligate the recipient either to attend the or to send. A is a letter asking the recipient to attend a It is typically written in mal third-person language and mailed five to eight weeks bee.

In "The s" episode of Seinfeld George Costanza's fiancée Susan is killed by licking toxic s that George picked out because they were inexpensive. Growth in the use of stationery was also underpinned by the development of thermography Although it lacks the fineness and distinctiveness of engraving thermography is a less expensive method of achieving raised type This technique often called poor man's engraving produces shiny raised lettering without impressing the surface of the paper (in the way traditional engraving does) As such s - either printed or engraved - finally became afdable all. Historically s were hand-written unless the length of the guest list made this impractical.[4] When mass-production was necessary engraving was preferred over the only other widely available then option which was a relatively poor quality of letterpress printing Hand-written s in the hosts' own handwriting are still considered most correct whenever feasible; these s follow the same mal third-person m as printed ones mal s and take the m of a personal letter less. A proper response is written on the recipient's normal stationery following the m of the example if the uses mal third-person language then the recipient replies in mal third-person language saying either "Mr Robert Jones accepts with pleasure the kind to the on the first of November" or "Ms Susan Brown regrets that she is unable to attend the on the first of November." Pre-printed pre-addressed pre-stamped response cards are frequently sent in the hope of encouraging a greater proportion of invited people to respond to the Some American etiquette experts consider the practice incorrect and ineffective at increasing response rates.[8] The is typically a note card folded in half or perhaps French folded (folded twice into quarters) Other options include a sheet of paper a tri-fold or a trendy pocket-fold design The appropriate paper density depends on the design but typically ranges from heavy paper to very stiff.